Business Subject Guide: In-Text and Parenthetical Citations

About In-Text & Parenthetical Citations

Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or even write a sentence that is not completely original thought: You include an in-text or parenthetical citation before you close out the sentence.

In-text and parenthetical citations provide brief and relevant information for readers of your paper to know which fully-detailed bibliographic citation at the end of your paper is referenced and where.

You are not limited to only using either in-text or parenthetical citations in your paper, you can use both throughout.

One Author

In-Text Components:
Author (year) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example:
Peters (2016) proposes that as society works towards inclusivity, it would behoove music studies within academia to reflect on their programs and curriculum as they “are often steeped in past traditions that [are] exclusionary as to gender and race, they can unintentionally cultivate a culture that continues to marginalize students [and] faculty” (p. 22).


Parenthetical Format Components:
Text (Author, year, page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example:
As society works towards inclusivity, it would behoove music studies within academia to reflect on their programs and curriculum as they “are often steeped in past traditions that [are] exclusionary as to gender and race, they can unintentionally cultivate a culture that continues to marginalize students [and] faculty” (Peters, 2016, p. 22).


Peters, G. (2016). Do students see themselves in the music curriculum? A project to encourage inclusion. Music Educators Journal, 102(4), 22-29. https://doi.org/10.1177/0027432116644330

Two Authors

In-Text Components:
First Author and Second Author (year) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example:
Haidt and Rose-Stockwel (2019) argue: “If social media creates incentives for moral grandstanding rather than authentic communication, then we should look for ways to reduce those incentives” (p. 60).


Parenthetical Format Components:
Text (First Author & Second Author, year, page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example:
“If social media creates incentives for moral grandstanding rather than authentic communication, then we should look for ways to reduce those incentives” (Haidt & Rose-Stockwell, 2019, p. 60).


Haidt, J., & Rose-Stockwell, T. (2019). The dark psychology of social networks: Why it feels like everything is going haywire. The Atlantic, 324(6), 56–60.

Three or More Authors

In-Text Components:
First Author et al. (year) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example:
Stapleton et al. (2017) assert that while it is a common practice on Instagram for users to post in an idealized and performative manner not representative of reality, some users might perceive that others truly have a better and hence enviable life (p. 143).


Parenthetical Format Components:
Text (First Author et al., year, page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example:
While it is a common practice on Instagram for users to post in an idealized and performative manner not representative of reality, some users might perceive that others truly have a better and hence enviable life (Stapleton et al., 2017, p. 143).


Stapleton, P., Luiz, G., & Chatwin, H. (2017). Generation validation: The role of social comparison in use of Instagram among emerging adults. CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 20(3), 142–149.

Organization (Commonly Abbreviated) as Author

In-Text Components (first citation):
Author (Abbreviation, year) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example (first citation):
When one does not have a tissue, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2015) urges people to cough or sneeze into their upper sleeve--which will both prevent germs from going airborne, but also allow any germs to die more quickly on cold fabric as opposed to warm skin (p. 3).

In-Text Components (further citations):
Abbreviated Author (year) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example (further citations):
The CDC (2015) suggests if you do not want people to believe you were raised by wolves, you must cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve when you do not have a tissue (pp. 3-4).


Parenthetical Format Components (first citation):
Text (Author [Abbreviation], year, page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example (first citation):
When one does not have a tissue, people should cough or sneeze into their upper sleeve--which will both prevent germs from going airborne, but also allow any germs to die more quickly on cold fabric as opposed to warm skin (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015, p. 3).

Parenthetical Format Components (further citations):
Text (Abbreviated Author, year, page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example (further citations):
If you do not want people to believe you were raised by wolves, you must cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve when you do not have a tissue (CDC, 2015, pp. 3-4).

Organization (No Abbreviation) as Author

In-Text Components:
Author (year) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example:
The American Red Cross (2011) instructs that when providing first aid until EMS personnel arrive, outside of emergency situations, one should not move a seriously injured individual as such action could cause further injury and impede their recovery (p. 11).


Parenthetical Format Components:
Text (Author, year, page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example:
When providing first aid until EMS personnel arrive, outside of emergency situations, one should not move a seriously injured individual as such action could cause further injury and impede their recovery (American Red Cross, 2011, p. 11).

No Author

In-Text Components:
"Title of Resource" (year) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example:
In "Persistent Depressive Disorder: A Constant Hum, a Ceaseless Drone" (2019), PDD is defined as a chronic form of depression that may have episodes of major depression along with periods of less severe symptoms, albeit its duration is prolonged and sometimes perennial (p. 39).


Parenthetical Format Components:
Text ("Title of Resource," year, page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example:
PDD is defined as a chronic form of depression that may have episodes of major depression along with periods of less severe symptoms, albeit its duration is prolonged and sometimes perennial ("Persistent Depressive Disorder: A Constant Hum, a Ceaseless Drone," 2019, p. 39).


(Note: In such cases, titles do not follow the standard APA rules per capitalization because it could cause confusion and said titles with their lowercase words might be misinterpreted as a direct quote.)

No Date

In-Text Components:
Author (n.d.) text (page numbers).

In-Text Example:
Deva (n.d.) explains: "Each note in a grama is taken as Sa, the succeeding notes becoming Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Ri in a descending order" (p. 22).


Parenthetical Format Components:
Text (Author, n.d., page numbers).

Parenthetical Format Example:
"Each note in a grama is taken as Sa, the succeeding notes becoming Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Ri in a descending order" (Deva, n.d., p. 22).

No Pages

In-Text Components:
Author (year) text.

In-Text Example:
While pineapple is often derided as a pizza topping, most have only tried it paired with pig--Patel (2017) submits that pineapple and jalapeño pair quite well on a pizza together, for a delicious vegetarian option many have likely not tried.


Parenthetical Format Components:
Text (Author, year).

Parenthetical Format Example:
While pineapple is often derided as a pizza topping, most have only tried it paired with pig--whereas, pineapple and jalapeño pair quite well on a pizza together, for a delicious vegetarian option many have likely not tried (Patel, 2017).

Additional In-Text & Parenthetical Citation APA Style Resources

In-Text & Parenthetical Citation Video